Table of Contents


* Kevin Carey, "The Real Value of Teachers: Using New Information about Teacher Effectiveness to Close the Achievement Gap," Thinking K-16 8, no. 1 (Winter 2004): 27.

# Dale Ballou, William Sanders, and Paul Wright, "Controlling for Student Background in Value-Added Assessment," Journal of Education and Behavioral Statistics, 29, no. 1 (2004): 37-65.

J.R. Lockwood and Daniel F. McCaffrey, "Controlling for Individual Heterogeneity in Longitudinal Models, with Applications to Student Achievement," Electronic Journal of Statistics 1 (2007): 244

Kilchan Choi, Pete Goldschmidt, and Kyo Yamashiro, Exploring Models of School Performance: From Theory to Practice (CSE Report 673) (Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing [CRESST], 2006), 24.

§ Daniel P. Mayer, John E. Mullens, and Mary T. Moore, Monitoring School Quality: An Indicators Report (NCES 2001-030) (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, 2000). Source:

|| S. Paul Wright, "Advantages of a Multivariate Longitudinal Approach to Educational Value-Added Assessment Without Imputation," Paper presented at National Evaluation Institute, 2004. Available online at

¶ Measures of Effective Teaching Project. "Ensuring Fair and Reliable Measures of Effective Teaching," (Seattle, WA: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 2013), 13.

** This description applies to typical years' reporting. Because assessments were not administered in spring 2020, the 2020-21 reporting uses a different modeling approach. More details are available at in Section (gain model) and Section (predictive model) of the Statistical Models and Business Rules document available at